Evidence - Arm Positioning

Alignment of the glenohumeral joint impacts the stability of the joint.

  • 30-45° of leading arm abduction will assist to align the shaft of their humerus with their glenoid fossa and minimize the internal rotation, abduction and flexion the arm is placed in (Rice, 2013)
  • In positions such as Figure 1 (A) the humerus is closely aligned with the glenoid and little force is neeeded for stabilization. When the humerus is not aligned with the glenoid, as in Figure 1 (B), more forceful work may be necessary for stabilization.
  • In the presence of shoulder injury or weakness, proper alignment of the glenohumeral joint may soften the mechancial load on the soft tissue , the mechanical load on soft tissues and the rotator cuff may be decreased. 


Internal rotation with abduction or forward flexion may predispose to impingement, particularly wth a narrowed humeroacromial space. 

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